Learn how to grow garlic and find out everything about harvesting garlic and storing it correctly!
Garlic is one of my absolute favorite crops. Not only is it an incredible culinary and medicinal plant, but it’s also easy to grow, hardy, and stores well for many months. When I have ample garden bed space, I like to grow enough garlic to supply my family’s kitchen and livestock needs for an entire year.
This post will walk you through the basics of growing, storing and harvesting garlic, and has dozens of links for additional reading!
How to Grow Garlic
When Should I Plant Garlic?
I think of garlic as a “school year” crop – I plant it in the fall and harvest it when school’s out for the summer.
Garlic bulbs are grown from cloves. Each clove will produce one new garlic plant/bulb. You can save the biggest and best of your cloves from the previous year, or purchase “seed” garlic for planting.
In the fall, usually around late September or early October, I prepare a few beds in a sunny location by lighting digging in a bit of compost. I space each garlic clove about 6 inches apart, and push them into the soil about 4 inches deep, with the root side down. Then I lightly cover the entire bed with loose straw.
In more mild climates, you will find that garlic sprouts in the autumn, grows a few inches tall and overwinters at that height, whereas in colder climates (for instance, here in Vermont), your garlic may not sprout until early spring.
What Varieties of Garlic Should I Plant?
I like to plant a mixture of two types of garlic: Hardneck and Softneck.
Just like its name suggests, Softneck garlic has a more flexible stalk, allowing it to be braided for storage. It typically keeps longer, but grows better in more mild winter conditions. Inchelium Red and Nootka Rose are two of my favorite varieties.
Hardneck garlic is particularly hardy, and many say more flavorful. It produces scapes, or flower stalks, in the spring time, which are removed from the plant to produce larger bulbs. When I was first learning to plant garden, my mentor referred to Hardneck garlic as “Easy Peel,” as the cloves are quite easy to unwrap. Music is one of my favorite hardneck varieties.
One of my favorite resources for growing garlic is this book, Growing Great Garlic. For more information on how to grow garlic:
How to Plant Garlic
Planting Garlic in the Fall Garden
In the Garden …. Garlic
How to Plant Garlic
Demystifying Hardneck and Softneck Garlic
How to Grow Garlic
How to Plant and Grow Garlic
Garlic Planting Time
When and How to Plant Garlic
Fertilizing and Mulching Garlic Plants
In the spring, the overwintered garlic will once again resume growing rapidly.
In mid-spring, I like to mulch my entire garlic bed with either compost, or bedding material from the barn. I’m not talking about fresh manure, but instead, the goopy, pee-laden straw that gets mucked out of the barn – it makes fantastic mulch!
I simply tuck the mulch around each garlic plant. This gives it a fantastic boost of fertility. You can do the same with compost or another type of well-composted manure. You can also use blood meal, or another organic fertilizer that is high in nitrogen.
What is Green Garlic and How Should I Use It?
If you’re impatiently waiting for your garlic crop and need a jolt of garlic flavor, the immature garlic plants, or green garlic, can be harvested to eat much like a leek or a scallion.
Harvested before the scape and bulb form, green garlic has an intense garlic-onion flavor that is perfect for stir-fries, salad dressings, and other recipes.
How to Remove Garlic Scapes and How to Use Them
Hardneck garlic will produce scapes in the spring. Scapes are the curled, unopened flowers of the garlic. It is important to remove them so the plant can focus on building larger bulbs, and not on flowering.
When the scapes begin to curl, as seen in the photo below, you can remove them by simply snapping the garlic scape off at its base.
Luckily, garlic scapes are completely edible and taste delicious. I like to chop them up in stir-fries and sautes, ferment them, or use them in place of garlic or onion. Here are a few recipes for you to try!
Harvesting garlic is one of my favorite gardening chores. Hidden below the soil is a garlic bulb, but until you dig it up, you don’t know exactly how big, or how beautiful it will be!
When Should You Harvest Garlic?
Typically, garlic takes about 9 months to mature (remember that school year?). A few weeks before your anticipated harvest date, reduce the amount you water your garlic to let the bulbs mature.
Because the garlic bulb, or the crop, is underground, it can be hard to know exactly when to harvest garlic. Too early, and your bulbs will not be completely mature. Too late, and bulbs can begin to rot in the ground, or the protective peel can crack.
I harvest garlic when the bottom 2-3 leaves have turned brown, and the plant has begun to look a bit “spent.” I realize that’s a rather subjective description, but you can usually tell when a garlic plant has finished growing and is ready to harvest. Feel free to pull one plant up out of the ground as a tester.
How to Harvest and Cure Garlic
When harvesting garlic, I use a digging fork to gently loosen the soil around each bulb, and pull the entire plant up by the stalk.
I gently shake off excess dirt, being careful not to damage or bruise the bulb. I then move them into a shady, airy, covered, and dry spot to cure for about two weeks.
After the garlic has cured, I gently remove any remaining dirt, trimming the roots to 1/2″ length. Hardneck garlic can be simply trimmed above the bulb and stored in a basket, while Softneck garlic is beautiful when braided (if you know how to French braid hair, it’s exactly the same idea!).
For more information on harvesting garlic, check out these links:
When we lived in Oregon, I stored my garlic year-round under a covered north-facing porch eave. When I needed more garlic, I’d grab a braid or two and bring them into the house to hang in the kitchen.
Here in NE Missouri, the cold winters mean that garlic must be stored indoors. Softneck garlic is stored in long braids around the house, and Hardneck garlic is kept in a basket, and, since it doesn’t store as well, used first.
For more information on storing garlic, check out these links:
However, garlic can be made into a powder for kitchen use, and also ferments well, and you can learn more from one of these great posts:
DIY Garlic Powder
Homemade Garlic Powder
Making Fermented Garlic
Fermented Honey Garlic
Using Garlic for Culinary or Medicinal Purposes
Ah, the most wonderful part – using and enjoying garlic! I love the flavor of garlic; along with an onion, it’s my go-to base for almost every recipe.
We also use garlic medicinally – I particularly enjoy making garlic honey lemonade when I’m sick. Garlic is also a great supplement for livestock. When we raised Alpine dairy goats, we gave each goat one clove of garlic per milking. I’m still trying to convince Creme Brûlée that garlic is a treat worth eating!
Growing and harvesting garlic in your own garden and knowing how to store it correctly will set you up for a year of culinary delight and home remedies.
Want to add more year-round crops to your garden?
Homestead Honey’s Guide to Fall Gardening will teach you how and when to plant cool weather crops so you can enjoy fresh food and save money on grocery bills all year long!